There have been three generations of products that are described as Engine Treatments. When we say Engine Treatment we are describing products that are designed to react with the metal in the engine. We are NOT talking about Oil Additives such as STP that work only with the oil in your engine.
First Generation of Additive
The First generation additives are known as solid film additives such as PTFE, Molydenum and Graphite. Examples of first generation additives in US market are Slick 50, T-Plus, Tufoil and many others.
This type of metal treating process is mechanical in nature. Teflon/PTFE products, for example, attempt to deposit plastic like resins onto the metal surfaces. Metal moving across can easily scrap off those deposits from the surface similar to the effect of using a spatula on the surface of a non-stick frying pan. Since the solids or particles used are inert, no chemical or physical bonding can occur. It makes little sense to add particles to motor oil; we change oil to remove particles
Users and tests have proven that PTFE clumped together, clog filters, instead of helping, it is actually depriving parts of lubricant. North Dakota State University, Briggs and Stratton (of lawn mower engine fame), the University of Utah Engineering Experiment Station, California State Polytechnic College and NASA Lewis Research Centre have proven this fact.
Re : A screes shot from NASA test on how PTFE additive increase the temperature of engine while a 3rd generation additive (X1R) has reduced the temperature with the same host oil, Castrol GTX 10w30.
You can get the full version of the above video from Youtube.com titled “X-1R Heat Test”
PTFE additives have caused a major backlash by consumer and the U.S Federal Trade Commission which investigated many mass-marketed engine oil additives in the late 1990s. One example are the FTC Charges against Slick 50 for USD10 million in 1997 (www.ftc.gov). More result can be obtained from the same website.
DuPont threatened legal action against anyone who used the name "Teflon" on any oil product destined for use in an internal combustion engine, and refused to sell its PTFE powders to anyone who intended to use them for such purposes
Second generation of additives
The Second generation of additives usually contains one of the main lubricity agent such as Chlorine, Short Chain Chlorinated paraffin and Chlorinated solvents. Some examples in US market are such as Motor-Up, Dura Lube, Prolong, Militec, Lubricator 2001 and many others
Since there is no chemical or physical bonding process occurring, chlorinated products rely on negative polarity to bond to metal. Ferrous surfaces have a positive charge resulting in a “static-cling” type of bonding. Static-cling bonding could be broken under pressure, heat and knocking of engine. Under heating and ionization, chlorinated paraffin for example, can release hydrocarbon acid, which is corrosive. In addition to this chlorine is knows environmental hazard. Following diagrams are showing how the second generation additive bonded on the metal surface.
Diagram 1 : Ionic Bonding Process
Diagram : Additive attached on the metal surface with ionic bonding process
One of the examples of second generation could not substantially support their claim on the efficacy of the product is “Dura Lube settles FTC charges by paying USD2 million in consumer redress in 2000 (www.ftc.gov). More could be obtained from the same website.
Third Generation of Additive
We also call this the Intelligent Lubricant. The only product in this category is X1R. The generation of additive contains a patented synthesis of numerous ingredients that work synergistically together. X1R will not change the viscosity of the engine oil that is being added to.
The ingredient consists of Controlled action cleaners intelligent lubricants, molecularly engineered heat-transfer agents and smart polymers non-drying lubricity agents
This new generation is specifically designed and formulated for use in ALL combustion engines. First it dissolves harmful deposits that reduce engine performance and physically bonds with the molecular structure of materials to counteract friction starting at its source, the molecular level.
Third generation lubricants also become an integral part of the metal, by penetrating into the metal and smoothing out their natural roughness to reduce friction, wear and particularly damaging metal to metal contact every time you start your engine.
Following are diagrams describing how 3rd generation additive, X1R works in the engine as well as a 15,000 times enlarge pictures showing the metal surface before and after the application of X1R. This picture is from a test with X1R at QC laboratory in US.
X1R penetrate into the metal as much as 3 micron
With heat, pressure and time, X1R strengthen the metal, proven to increase the Rockwell-B-Hardness from 35Rb to 72Rb (Test by QC Laboratories and Swedish National Testing and Research Institute )
X1R smoothen the microscopic imperfection of the metal surface
|Metal surface before X1R
||Metal surface after X1R
By creating smother metal to metal contacts, X1R helps is reducing friction, resistance, vibration and heat.
The 3rd generation of additive, X1R was invented for the use of NASA Kennedy Space Centre and the Space Shuttle Program. Since that time X-1R has become accreditedf Space Technology and been inducted to the Space Technology Hall pof Fame. X1R products bear one or all of the following logo from NASA and it is mentioned with details in NASA’s official website www.nasa.gov.